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SOCIETY

Reassessing leftist values: How the Israeli-Palestinian conflict split European left-wing parties

The terrorist attack, the largest in Israel's history, perpetrated by the Palestinian group Hamas on October 7 has reverberated globally. In response to these developments, the left-wing stance in Europe remains unified in some nations, while in others, it exposes divisions. Coalitions are collapsing, ministerial cabinets are unraveling, and internal party conflicts are surfacing. This crisis transcends mere politics; it is one of values as parties and movements grapple with determining priorities – is it about the “decolonial struggle” or the rights of women and the LGBTQ+ community? What is deemed the greater evil – Hamas or the “Western imperialists”? Amidst these conflicts, a long-neglected trend has become glaringly evident – the surge of anti-Semitism in Europe.

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Content
  • Anti-Palestinian Demonstrations in Europe

  • How leftists in different countries reacted to the conflict

Anti-Palestinian Demonstrations in Europe

The governments of European countries have expressed support for the citizens of Israel and condemned the October 7 Hamas attack. Among the hundreds of victims of the terrorists are people from dozens of countries, many holding dual passports. Chancellor Olaf Scholz of Germany, Prime Minister Rishi Sunak of the United Kingdom, President Emmanuel Macron of France, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis of Greece, Prime Minister Mark Rutte of the Netherlands, and others personally visited Israel. The leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, and Italy issued a statement supporting “Israel's right to self-defense.”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

The Arch of Titus in Rome adorned with the colors of the Israeli flag
The Arch of Titus in Rome adorned with the colors of the Israeli flag

However, within leftist parties and on the streets of European cities, the situation is not uniformly supportive. Apart from rallies in solidarity with Israelis, tens of thousands are participating in pro-Palestinian demonstrations, including members of Arab diasporas, supporters, and representatives of various leftist parties. While some left-wing politicians unequivocally condemned the Hamas terrorist attack, others prefer to speak about the “occupation” of Palestine by Israel, the “apartheid” against Palestinians, and some advocate for “peace,” with many outright refusing to label Hamas as terrorists.

With parliamentary elections looming in several countries and European Parliament elections scheduled for June 2024, leftist parties are also vying for the votes of the diaspora. While the right of Israel to defend itself is undisputed for leftists in Germany and Austria, in the United Kingdom, for example, Palestine serves as a reminder of British colonial policies, creating differing perspectives within leftist circles.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

In the United Kingdom, Palestine serves as a reminder of British colonial policies, creating differing perspectives within leftist circles

“In 1922, the newly established League of Nations gave the British occupation the semblance of international legitimacy by granting it a mandate over Palestine. The [British] mandate system purportedly aimed to prepare colonized territories for self-governance. However, in practice, it facilitated another form of colonial rule by Britain and France. Notably, these nations dominated the League,” explains historian and postcolonial studies expert Anne Irwin from the University College London.

On October 10, the police in Madrid reported the discovery of a drawing on the entrance of a synagogue in the city center. The drawing featured a crossed-out Star of David along with the inscription “Free Palestine.” In the French city of Arras in the Pas-de-Calais department, a school teacher was killed. Overall in France, as of October 12, the Ministry of Interior recorded over a hundred anti-Semitic offenses, leading to the arrest of 24 people. On October 11, a synagogue in Porto, Portugal, was targeted with slogans on the fence stating “Free Palestine” and “End Israeli apartheid.” On October 13, when Hamas declared a “day of anger,” Jewish schools in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Italy closed due to fears of attacks.

The London Metropolitan Police reported a rise in anti-Semitic incidents. According to British police data, Islamophobia is also on the rise, with incidents increasing from 31 cases to 51, though the number of actual crimes has not been documented. Dozens of anti-Semitic actions occurred in Milan, including the inscription on a local hospital wall reading “Send Jewish murderers into the oven.” In Germany, at least three doors of houses where Jews reside were marked with Stars of David – an unprecedented incident since the Holocaust. On October 16, two Swedish citizens were killed in Brussels, and the perpetrator explained his actions as a reaction to the burning of the Quran.

On the second “day of anger” declared by Hamas on Wednesday, October 18, following claims that a hospital in Gaza was allegedly destroyed by an Israeli missile, unknown individuals threw Molotov cocktails at the Jewish community in Berlin. On Thursday morning, a man shouting anti-Israel slogans was stopped at the synagogue on Brunnenstrasse. On Saturday, October 21, the door of the apartment of two Jewish pensioners in the 20th district of Paris was set on fire. On October 22, Le Parisien reported the arrest of three teenagers in France and one in Belgium on suspicion of planning an attack on the Israeli embassy in Belgium and possibly in France and Luxembourg. Among the detainees is a 16-year-old young man from Ingushetia, diagnosed with schizophrenia.

On October 27, Marxist students at Lund University in Sweden marched with the slogan “from the river to the sea,” implying that Israel should not exist. On October 31, graffiti with Stars of David were discovered on the walls of several residential buildings in the tenth district of Paris. Two days later, the police arrested two Moldovan citizens on suspicion of causing the graffiti. As reported by the radio station Europe 1, citing a source, they admitted to acting on the instructions of a “person from Russia.” In Austria, the walls of the university were marked with the words: “Free Palestine and Gaza from German and Austrian guilt.” In the night of November 1, it became known that the Jewish section of the Central Cemetery in Vienna was set on fire. Swastikas were drawn on the walls of the ritual hall. In Germany, the overall number of anti-Semitic acts tripled since October 7.

Decolonial struggle vs Rights of women and the LGBTQ+ community?

Those on the left who view Hamas's actions as part of a decolonial and liberation struggle often overlook how Hamas militants implement their “internal policies” towards Palestinians and intend to extrapolate them onto Israelis. In Wiener Zeitung, Austrian feminist and cultural theorist Beatrice Frasl attempts to explain to the left that “Hamas is not fighting for freedom; their declared goal is the destruction of all Jews and the annihilation of Israel. Anyone who doesn't believe this should read their charter. Not only hatred towards Jews but also blatant misogyny and homophobia are central elements of their ideology.”

In The Atlantic, Simon Sebag Montefiore dissects the factual and logical inaccuracies of decolonial rhetoric, which, when applied to the Israel-Hamas conflict, he believes to be a “ mix of Marxist theory, Soviet propaganda, and traditional anti-Semitism from the Middle Ages and the 19th century.” The new facets of left-wing theory have simply “replaced traditional universalist leftist values, including internationalist standards of decency and respect for human life and the safety of innocent civilians.”

Frasl is convinced that “Hamas is building its strategy on Western antisemitism,” and it is doing so quite successfully. The revealed “inability of postmodernist leftists to recognize or distinguish themselves from antisemitism is not a coincidence or happenstance, as they are structurally antisemitic themselves.”

As Montefiore notes, the decolonial approach places Israelis in the roles of colonialists, oppressors, and whites, thereby dismissing the notion that they themselves may be subjected to racism and extermination.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

Decolonial approach places Israelis in the roles of oppressors, thereby dismissing the notion that they themselves may be subjected to racism and extermination

The widespread use of the term “genocide” in relation to Palestinians operates in the same way. It seems to erase the Holocaust genocide. One can say it works on a similar principle as “schizo-fascism,” a term proposed by historian Timothy Snyder concerning modern Russia. By labeling someone else as a “fascist,” the one uttering it surely cannot be a “fascist” themselves. When people talk about “genocide” in Gaza, it's as if they imply that it did not happen in Israeli kibbutzim.

An influential figure for European leftists, Judith Butler, an American of Jewish descent and a professor at the University of Berkeley, believes, “ If we are asked to understand Palestinian violence as a continuation of Israeli violence, as the Harvard Palestine Solidarity Committee asks us to do, then there is only one source of moral culpability, and even Palestinians do not own their violent acts as their own.” However, in 2006, Butler referred to Hamas and Hezbollah as part of the “progressive global left.”

As noted by Lorenzo Vidino, Director of the Program on Extremism at The George Washington University, relations between European leftists and Islamism constitute an “incredibly diverse array of political views and currents.” However, in general, it can be argued that most of them exhibit mutual “sympathy and a desire to cooperate.” Vidino points out how the new generation of Islamists born and raised in Europe adeptly employs leftist narratives, speaking “ the language of discrimination, anti-racism, internalized oppression, intersectionality and post-colonial theory.”

“In recent years, left-wing activism on all fronts and in all subject areas has undergone a sudden dumbing down #postapictureoninstagram and a superficial analysis to such an extent that it has largely turned into incoherent and internally contradictory nonsense,” observes feminist Frasl.

At times, controversies escalate into absurdity. Take, for instance, Greta Thunberg, a nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize, expressing support for Palestine through a photo featuring a poster and a toy octopus placed beside her. This particular blue octopus, adorned with the Star of David and its tentacles enveloping the globe, has historically been portrayed in Nazi cartoons. The photo stirred considerable outrage in Israel, prompting Thunberg to assure her followers that she “had absolutely no idea” about the symbolism, explaining that individuals with autism (to which she belongs) often use soft toys “to convey feelings.” She unequivocally stated her condemnation of anti-Semitism in all its forms, deleted the post, and reposted the same photo sans the octopus. While it's conceivable that the octopus unintentionally appeared in her photo, the coincidence is questionable, especially as Thunberg made pro-Palestinian statements sharing the same stage with Sara Rachdan. Rachdan is known for her outspoken support of Hamas, and she warmly welcomed the attack on Israel on October 7.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

Greta Thunberg deleted the photo with the blue octopus, which she posted on social media in support of Palestine
Greta Thunberg deleted the photo with the blue octopus, which she posted on social media in support of Palestine

How leftists in different countries reacted to the conflict

In France, the Ministry of Interior initially prohibited pro-Palestinian demonstrations. However, this decision was contested by the local “Committee for Palestine Action” (Comité Action Palestine) in the State Council. The French State Council left specific decisions to the prefects, determining “whether to ban a demonstration directly related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, regardless of which party it aims to support.”

On October 19, the first authorized pro-Palestinian demonstration took place in Paris, with the left-radical New Anti-Capitalist Party (NPA) among the organizers. On October 21, Lyon saw another demonstration in support of Palestine. On October 22, yet another demonstration occurred in Paris, attended personally by the founder and leader of the La France Insoumise party, Jean-Luc Mélenchon. Sharing a video from Place de la République, he declared, “This is France. Meanwhile, Madame Broun-Pivet <Chairwoman of the National Assembly of France — The Insider> is relaxing in Tel Aviv to encourage mass killings. Not in the name of the French people!”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

The rally in Lyon
The rally in Lyon

François Ruffin, a member of Mélenchon's party and a deputy of the National Assembly for the Somme district, expressed “full condemnation of the Hamas attack” and concern for the “Palestinian and Israeli civilian population,” avoiding the term “terrorists.” Ruffin sees the residents of Israel as “drawn into the conflict” by the “most brutal Israeli government in the last 30 years.”

Among other leading left-wing parties in France, there were those who labeled the Hamas attack on Israel as terrorist and “unconditionally” spoke out against such actions. The Socialist Party of France (Parti socialiste — PSF) condemned Hamas militants, expressed support for the people of Israel, while not withdrawing its questions about the policies of the Israeli government. Although the PSF believes that Israeli settlements in Palestinian territories are “illegal” and that the Palestinian youth turning to “radicalism” is partly the fault of the Israeli authorities, socialists do not consider Netanyahu's actions as a justification for “relativizing terrorist aggression against the Israeli population.”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

The PSF believes that Israeli settlements in Palestinian territories are “illegal” and that the Palestinian youth turning to “radicalism” is partly the fault of the Israeli authorities

“There are no mitigating circumstances,” emphasizes the Socialist Party of France, refusing to equate the Israeli authorities with the “terrorist organization” Hamas. Moreover, the PSF referred to Hamas's actions as “an act of barbarism directed against Jews, as it was during the pogroms that tragically marked the past century, appealing to the often-disliked decolonial researchers' binary opposition of 'barbarians versus civilized world.'“

However, the party called for holding Hamas militants accountable for the violence rather than delivering a “blind blow to the Palestinian population of Gaza.” PSF leader Fabien Roussel explained on France Info that he sees no problem with demonstrations “for peace” as long as they do not involve “antisemitic statements and justifications of terrorism, contrary to the law.” He expressed negative sentiments towards the suspension of EU aid to Palestine, stating that the “military crimes” of Hamas should not impact ordinary Palestinians.

PSF called for the resumption of water supply to the Gaza Strip, the opening of humanitarian corridors, and reminded that “antisemitism is a crime.” They also emphasized that there should be no blaming of fellow Muslim citizens who want to live in accordance with the laws of the Republic.

Some leading French left-wing publications do not shy away from controversy. Mediapart, an investigative online journal, released a report from Israel on the situation of Palestinians within the country with the headline “Palestinians in Israel find themselves 'between a rock and a hard place,'“ causing a storm of outrage in the comments even among its own subscribers. “Palestinians in Israel?! Palestinians of Palestine, you mean? This is their land.”

For some activists, supporting Palestine leads to problems with law enforcement. On October 20, Jean-Paul Delescaut, the secretary of one of the units of the largest trade union confederation, the General Confederation of Labor, was arrested at his home on charges of “justifying terrorism.” According to his colleagues, the reason was a pro-Palestinian leaflet published by him on October 10. The Lille prosecutor's office is conducting an investigation.

In the United Kingdom, Labour Party leader Keir Starmer expressed support for Israel's “right to defend itself.” Some key figures in the party share similar positions, including Emily Thornberry, John Healey, and David Lammy. However, others deemed Starmer's stance unacceptable and began publicly declaring their departure from the party. For instance, Mona Ahmed, a council member of North Kensington, stated that “Starmer is complicit in the dehumanization of Palestinians” and submitted her resignation. The Labour Party also saw the departure of Amna Abdullatif, the first Muslim in Manchester City Council, along with two Labour council members from Oxford, Shaista Aziz and Amar Latif, totaling over a dozen politicians.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

After the Labour Party leader's statement affirming Israel's “right to defend itself,” over a dozen politicians have left the party

On October 11, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) released a resounding statement justifying its decision not to label Hamas as “terrorist” citing “high standards.”

“It's simply not the BBC's job to tell people who to support and who to condemn - who are the good guys and who are the bad guys.”

However, these considerations did not satisfy pro-Palestinian activists. On October 14, the BBC office was splattered with red paint. The organization Palestine Action claimed responsibility, accusing the broadcasting company, “Spreading lies for the occupying authorities and agreeing with the war crimes of Israel means that you have the blood of Palestinians on your hands.”

In Spain, a rift between socialists and the far left occurred at the level of the cabinet ministers. The country's Prime Minister, Pedro Sanchez, who is the leader of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, clearly stated that Israel has the right to defend itself under international law and referred to Hamas as a “terrorist” group.

However, at least three ministers in Sanchez's cabinet accuse Israel of war crimes and the genocide of Palestinians. The leader of the left-wing party Podemos and Minister of Social Rights and Agenda Ione Belarra claims that the “state of Israel is carrying out planned genocide in the Gaza Strip,” a sentiment shared by her party colleague and Minister of Equality Irene Montero, stating that Israel “systematically violates international law” and plans “ethnic cleansing and terror.” The Deputy Prime Minister of Spain, Minister of Labor, and leader of the Sumar movement Yolanda Díaz “loudly and clearly” condemned the “Israeli apartheid and violence against the civilian population, wherever it comes from.”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

At least three ministers in the Sanchez cabinet claim that Israel is committing war crimes and genocide against Palestinians

Press secretary of the left-wing environmental party Más Madrid, Rita Maestre, refused to participate in a minute of silence in Madrid in memory of the Israelis killed by Hamas militants. The Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Spain, and a deputy of the Sumar party, Enrique Santiago, also hesitates to label Hamas as terrorists, stating, “Occupied peoples have a legitimate right to resist.” In response to the bans on pro-Palestinian demonstrations, he commented, “Europe, with the history of the Jewish genocide, is now hiding the Palestinian genocide.” The press secretary of the Podemos party, Isabel Serra, also expressed support for Palestine and emphasized her opposition to the “complicity of EU institutions in genocide and systematic human rights violations.”

Spanish Congress deputy Tesh Sidi wrote on the first day of the Hamas attack that she stands with “peoples and their right to self-determination. Today and always with Palestine.” Emphasizing that she is a “defender of human rights,” she warned her followers: “There will be many manipulations by the media, round-the-clock tweets, but many of us know that Palestinians are being killed day and night, and no one is condemning it.”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

Protest in Support of Palestine, Madrid
Protest in Support of Palestine, Madrid

The Embassy of Israel in Spain responded by “strongly” condemning the “recent statements of some members of the Spanish government.” The embassy expressed deep concern that some representatives of the Spanish government have decided to “join terrorists like ISIS.”

In the Netherlands, Frans Timmermans, a member of the Dutch Labour Party (PvdA) and a candidate for Prime Minister from the coalition of the Green Left and the Dutch Labour Party, expressed support for Israel but avoided the term “terrorism.” He stated, “Nothing can justify this indiscriminate violence against the Israeli civilian population. Hamas must immediately stop this condemnable violence.”

Timmermans' statement led to internal conflicts in both parties, causing tensions at an inconvenient moment—before elections. The coalition congress managed to reach a unified resolution that focused on the humanitarian situation in Palestine.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

Pro-Palestinian Demonstration in The Hague
Pro-Palestinian Demonstration in The Hague

For supporting the initial parliamentary proposal in defense of Israel, both the Greens and the Dutch Labour Party had to apologize and clarify their position after facing criticism:

“It was never our intention to trivialize violations of international humanitarian law or to formulate exceptions to them. We should have made a different choice here.” The left-wing party BIJ1, not part of the coalition, considers the situation with Palestinians as an “occupation” and “genocide.”

In Italy, the secretary of the center-left Democratic Party, Elli Schlein, “clearly and decisively” condemned the “terrorist attack on the Israeli civilian population.” However, the Italian Left and the Green party are refraining from using the term “terrorist” but still condemn the attack. Luigi de Magistris, the leader of the left-radical coalition People's Union, representing the interests of several small parties, known for his fight against the Neapolitan mafia, wrote on October 7 about the Palestinian people's right to “resistance.” He blamed “Western governments who are unwilling to reach a diplomatic solution” for the events. “In Gaza, the Israeli government is committing a war crime against humanity to destroy Palestinian land, disregarding international law, with the complicity of Western governments,” de Magistris asserted.

In a multiparty statement from the Austrian Parliament, which was signed by the Social Democratic Party, Hamas terrorism is unequivocally condemned: “Our democracy must defend itself and, due to its history, it bears a special responsibility to stand shoulder to shoulder with Israel in the fight against terrorism. Despite party lines and political views, we are united in our solidarity with the Israeli people and the state of Israel.”

However, there are exceptions in Austria—the organization Communist Youth stated that “Israel is not a victim in this situation. Israel has killed tens of thousands of people and expelled hundreds of thousands from their homes since the founding of the state in 1948. Under the political influence of right-wing extremists in the Israeli government, Zionist settlers daily attack Palestinian residents.”

In Poland, where the opposition party recently won parliamentary elections, the perspective on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is intertwined with internal debates about whether to erect a barrier on the border with Belarus. The country's Defense Minister, Mariusz Błaszczak, commenting on Hamas's attack catching Israeli authorities off guard, warns: “This is a warning, including to those who still say that the fence on the border with Belarus should be dismantled.”

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

In Poland the perspective on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is intertwined with internal debates about whether to erect a barrier on the border with Belarus

In Sweden, whose two citizens died in Belgium at the hands of an Islamist, the position of left-wing parties is almost unanimously pro-Palestinian. Meanwhile, Swedish politician Björn Alling of the socialist Left Party could be at risk of losing his party seat for referring to Israel as a “disgusting terrorist state.” Party members initiated the process of excluding Alling after he criticized party leader Nooshi Dadgostar for condemning the “horrible Hamas attack” and “unilateral condemnation of Palestinians.”

The most prominent left-wing voice from Slovenia is undoubtedly the philosopher Slavoj Žižek, who, on October 18 at the Frankfurt Book Fair, began his speech with an unequivocal condemnation of the Hamas attack, “without any 'ifs' or 'buts'“, acknowledging “Israel's right to defend itself and eliminate the threat.”

From his perspective, the current “impossible” situation faced by Palestinians will only lead to the “rise of antisemitism.” Žižek explains that the “masses of Palestinian Arabs, who have been in a state of uncertainty for decades, are subjected to daily persecution by settlers and the Israeli state.” Additionally, he labeled the decision of the Frankfurt Book Fair to postpone the award ceremony for the book prize to Palestinian writer Adania Shibli, who lives between Jerusalem and Berlin, as “scandalous.”

Žižek emphasizes the change in Israel's rhetoric towards fundamentalism and believes that European right-wing groups support Israel only to ensure that Jews live somewhere far away from them. In September of the previous year, Žižek released a controversial article titled “Ukraine is Palestine, not Israel,” which drew criticism from many.

On October 7, 35 citizens of France, 1 German, and 10 citizens of the United Kingdom were killed by Hamas terrorists. Additionally, 13 French citizens are missing. Among the hostages of the terrorists, there are at least 8 citizens of Germany, one from the Netherlands, four from Portugal, one from Spain, and, possibly, two from Italy.

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